BỆNH CHÁY LÁ KHOAI MÔN ( Phytophthora colocasiae)

Bệnh Cháy lá khoai môn
Tác nhân gây bệnh do nấm Phytophthora colocasiae

Bệnh Cháy lá  trên cây khoai môn là một bệnh gây hại chủ yếu  và nặng nề cho năng suất khoai môn, bệnh có phân bố khá rộng trên thế giới như Philipin, Indonesia, Malaysia,  Ấn độ, các vùng nhiệt đới Đông nam á, Thái bình dương, châu Phi ,Hoa kỳ, Hawai… và Việt nam, bệnh gây ra do Tác nhân gây bệnh là 1 loại nấm có tên Phytophthora colocasiae gây hại trên khoai môn, khoai sọ…

21072013207   TaroLeafBlight05sm

Lá khoai môn bị cháy lá

TaroLeafBlight11smbào tử nấm

 

TRIỆU CHỨNG

Giai đoạn đầu của bệnh cháy lá được đặc trưng bởi sự hình thành các đốm màu nâu nhỏ ở mặt  trên của lá. Nấm Phytophthora colocasiae chủ yếu gây bệnh trên lá, nhưng nó cũng ảnh hưởng đến cuống lá và thân ống. Những vết bệnh thường xảy ra ở chót lá và bìa lá nơi nước tích tụ, cũng xảy ra ở giữa phiến lá, trên 1 lá có thể xảy ra nhiều vết bệnh, Các cạnh của vết bệnh bắt đầu lan rộng thành vết lớn hơn, màu xám, hoặc màu đen đến gần tím

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Chu trình xâm nhiễm của nấm bệnh Phytophthora colocasiae

Trong thời tiết ẩm ướt các vết bệnh lan rộng rất nhanh chiếm diện tích  phần lớn của lá và phần lá bệnh bị mục nát trong một vài ngày là thủng rách lá. Lá bị hư hại thường treo trên cuống lá  như 1 lá cờ . Chung quanh vết bệnh hình thành 1 lớp bột trắng mọng là các bào tử vô tính gọi là bọc bào tử có  hình bầu dục nhọn ở 1 đầu , bọc bào tử trong suốt có 1 cuống gai  ngắn.

Bọc bào tử phần lớn nẩy mầm gián tiếp tạo thành các động bào tử bơi lội trong nước . Động bào tử có thể bơi trong nhiều giờ và bị hấp dẫn bởi chất hữu cơ hay mô cây chủ.  Sau đó tạo thành nang bào tử (mất đuôi), nang bào tử nẩy mầm thành các sợi nấm (mycelium) sợi nấm xâm nhiễm vào cây.

Các bọc bào tử cũng có thể nảy mầm trực tiếp bằng cách hình thành ống bào tử xâm nhập vào cây chủ nhưng ít xảy ra.

Trong điều kiện thuận lợi thời gian từ khi xâm nhiễm đến khi phát bệnh ( thời gian ủ bệnh) khoảng 2- 4 ngày. Sự lan truyền bệnh xảy ra bởi ước mưa và gió. Trên lá mới các bào tử nấm nhanh chóng nảy mầm và xâm nhập cây chủ. Mặc dù lá khoai môn có sáp trên bề mặt nhưng chỉ cần một lượng nước tích tụ ở hai bề mặt của lá là đủ cho các bào tử nấm nảy mầm và xâm nhập vào cây chủ.

Nấm Phytophthora colocasiae còn có thể tạo thành các bào tử trứng có khả năng tồn tại lâu trong các mô đất khô. Sự vận chuyển của các củ giống nhiễm bệnh cũng làm phát tán mầm bệnh.

TRỊ BỆNH

Việc sử dụng các thuốc bảo vệ thực vật có gốc đồng như Norshield, Copper oxychloride, Copper hydroxid đem lại hiệu quả trong việc phòng trị bệnh Cháy lá khoai môn.

Các hợp chất gốc Mangan, Kẽm như Mancozeb, Antracol cũng ngăn chận bệnh, tuy nhiên cần sử dụng luân phiên và phun lặp lại nhiều lần nhất là trong thời gian có nhiều mưa.

Metalaxyl cũng cho kết quả tốt trong chữa trị.

Liều lượng sử dụng các loại thuốc như sau:

Norshield 86.2WP hòa tan 50gr thuốc với 20 lít nước phun cho 500m2, có thể hỗn hợp thêm với 20 gr thuốc Phytocide  50WP đem lại kết quả cao.

Hoặc dùng: 100gr Mancozeb 80WP + 50 gr Acodyl 35WP hòa với 18-20 lít nước.

Cũng có thể dùng  50 gr COC 85WP  + 50 gr Mataxyl 25WP hòa với 18-20 lít nước.

PHÒNG BỆNH

Cần xử lý củ giống với hoạt chất Iprodion như Virovral 50WP trước khi vận chuyển và xuống giống.

Các loại thuốc nêu trên đều có bán tại cửa hàng Thuốc Bảo Vệ thưc Vật Tuấn Cúc (92 Quốc lộ 20, Liên Nghĩa, Đức Trọng . Liên hệ 0633.844089).

Ks Đào Huy Tuấn

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1,678 Comments

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    Làm ơn Cho em hỏi
    E trồng khoai sáp tháng 6 ÂM lịch, đến nay bị mưa lũ lụt nên bị ngập nước lá khoai bị lốm đốm thối từng lỗ rồi héo rủ lần.vậy là bệnh gì? Thuốc điều xin kỹ sư chỉ giúp
    xin cảm ơn nhiều!

  2. Xin chào kỹ sư Duy Tuấn!
    Làm ơn Cho em hỏi
    E trồng khoai sáp tháng 6 ÂM lịch, đến nay bị mưa lũ lụt nên bị ngập nước lá khoai bị lốm đốm thối từng lỗ rồi héo rủ lần.vậy là bệnh gì? Thuốc điều xin kỹ sư chỉ giúp qua email sondinhtran0612@gmail.com
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  15. Тест на imbt. Какой цвет притягивает солнце черный или белый.
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  20. Формы мышления это в психологии.
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